Accute Mountain Sickness
Altitude sickness is a disorder caused by being at high altitude where there is less oxygen. It more commonly occurs above 8000 feet or 2440 metres. It is difficult to determine who may be affected by altitude sickness since there are no specific factors. More, one time you can be affected and another time not affected.
The main cause of altitude sickness is ascending too high too quickly. The number of oxygen molecules per breath is reduced as altitude increases. At 3600 metres there are roughly 40% fewer oxygen molecules per breath compared to at sea level. Also, the lower air pressure at high elevation can cause fluids to leak from the capillaries in the lungs and the brain, which can lead to a fluid build-up. Your body needs to adapt to the decrease in oxygen at a specific altitude. This process is known as acclimatization and generally takes one to three days at a specific altitude. Without proper acclimatization, it can lead to potentially serious, even life threatening altitude sickness.
There are three types of altitude sickness:
1) Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS). This is the effect of altitude on those who ascend too rapidly to elevation beyond 3000 metres. Any of the following symptoms must alert you: headache which persists with medicine, lost of appetite or sleep, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, shortness of breath at rest, abnormal fatigue, decrease in the amount of urine... Depending on how you cumulate these symptoms, you must climb more slowly, stay at the same altitude or descend immediatly. For more information have a look to the Astruc scale.
2) High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE). This is a dangerous build-up of fluid in the lungs preventing the air spaces from opening up and filling with fresh air with each breath. Symptoms include water in lungs, increasing shortness of breath even at rest, severe cough - dry/productive, unusual fatigue while walking, high pulse rate, and blueness of face, lip, fingernails which indicate the inability of transporting oxygen into the blood.
3) High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE). This is the result of swelling of brain tissues from fluid leakage. Symptoms include water in the head, severe headache, vomiting, walking like intoxicated, mental confusion or altered mental status, irritable and easily annoyed, and unconsciousness or coma.
For the best altitude acclimatization this is very important to follow the recommanded acclimatization ascent rates. This means that the altitude of 3000 m should be reached in 3 days and that 2 consecutive nights must be spent at this altitude. Then an average of +350 m per day is recommended until the altitude of 4000 m where you should spend again 2 consecutive nights. Then from 4000 m to 5000 m the average of +350 m per day should be respected again.
Some other rules shall help for a good acclimatization: drink more than usual to compensate the dry air ; every day climb 300 m higher than the altitude you will sleep, stay a while then descend for sleeping ; do not drink alcohol.
Permit and Entrance Fees - Restricted areas
|DOLPO||Areas of Upper Dolpo||For the first 10 days US$ 500 per person and after 10 days US$ 50 per day per person or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|DOLPO||Areas of Lower Dolpo||Per week per person US$ 10 or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|MUSTANG||Areas of Upper Mustang||For the first 10 days US$ 500 per person and after 10 days US$ 50 per day per person or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|GORKHA||Manaslu Region||From September to November US$ 70 per week per person and after 7 days US$ 10 per day per person or equivalent convertible foreign currency. From December to August US$ 50 per week per person and after 7 days US$ 7 per day per person or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|GORKHA||Areas of Chhekampar and Chunchet VDC (Sirdibas-Lokpa-Chumling-Chhekampar-Nile-Chhule Area)||From September to November, US$ 35 per person for first 8 days and from December to August US$ 25 per person for first 8 days or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|MUGU||Areas of Mugu, Dolpu, Pulu and Bhangri||For the first 7 days US$90 per person and after 7 days US$ 15 per day per person or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|MANANG||Areas of Nar and Phu||From September to November, US$ 90 per week per person and December to August US$ 75 per week per person or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|DOLAKHA||Gaurishankar and Lamabagar||Per week per person US$ 10 or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|RASUWA||Thuman and Timure||Per week per person US$ 10 or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|HUMLA||Simikot and Yari (Areas of Limi and Muchu village Development Committee, and area way to Tibet via Tangekhola of Darma Village Development committee)||For the first 7 days US$ 50 per person and after 7 days US$7 per day per person or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|HUMLA||Sankhuwasabha (Areas of Kimathanka, Chepuwa,Hatiya and Pawakhola VDCs)||For the first 4 weeks US$ 10 per person per week and after four weeks, US$ 20 per person per week or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|TAPLEJUNG||Kanchanjanga region (Areas of Olangchung Gola, Lelep, Papung and Yamphudin VDCs)||Per week per person US$ 10 or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|BAJHANG||Areas of Kanda, Saipal and Dhuli||For the first 7 days US$ 90 per person and after 7 days US$ 15 per day per person or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
|DARCHULA||Areas of Byas VDC||For the first 7 days US$ 90 per person and after 7 days US$ 15 per day per person or equivalent convertible foreign currency.|
a. To get a group trekking permit, an application form with other relevant documents should be submitted through any registered trekking agency in Nepal.
b. Trekking fee can be paid in Nepalese currency. Not with standing anything written in above.
Entry Permit in Conservation Areas
National Park Entry Permit
|Sagarmatha National Park (world heritage sites)||Free||Rs 1500||Rs 3500|
|Chitwan National Park (world heritage sites)||Rs 100||Rs 750||Rs 1500|
|Langtang National Park||Free||Rs 1500||Rs 3000|
|Bardiya National Park||Rs 50||Rs 500||Rs 1000|
|Khaptad National Park||Free||Rs 1500||Rs 3000|
|Makalu / Barun National Park||Free||Rs 1500||Rs 3000|
|Rara National Park||Free||Rs 1500||Rs 3000|
|Sheyphoksundo National Park||Free||Rs 1500||Rs 3000|
|Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park||Rs 10||Rs 250||Rs 250|
|Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve||Rs 50||Rs 500||Rs 1000|
|Parsa Wildlife Reserve||Rs 50||Rs 500||Rs 1000|
|Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve||Rs 20||Rs 200||Rs 500|
Heritage Site Entrance Permit
|UNESCO Heritage Site||SAARC||Chinese||Foreigners|
|Kathmandu Durbar Square||Rs 150||Rs 750||Rs 750|
|Swayambhunath Temple||Rs 50||Rs 200||Rs 200|
|Baudhanath Stupa||Rs 40||Rs 150||Rs 150|
|Pashupatinath Temple||Free||Rs 1000||Rs 1000|
|Patan Durbar Square||Rs 150||Rs 150||Rs 500|
|Bhaktapur Durbar Square||Rs 100||Rs 100||US$ 15|
In general good warm clothing such as down jacket, thermal undergarment, good trekking shoes, wind proof trousers, torch, scarf, hat, sunglasses, warm socks, sun cream, lip balm and trekking poles to assist with trekking at times.